I highlight the works which I have found to be particularly helpful in aiding my understanding of the Great War and in enabling research into the lives of Wirral and Liverpool people during that time in black bold. I highlight works which I regard as seminal and indispensable in Red Bold. 

Secondary sources relating to human experiences of the Great War, both military and civilian, in Britain, including works about places other than Wirral. 

Max Arthur, Forgotten Voices of the First World War (Haydock: The Book People, 2002)

Max Arthur, The Road Home: The Aftermath of the Great War Told by the Men and Women who Survived It (London: Phoenix, 2009)

Peter Barham, Forgotten Lunatics of the Great War (Newhaven: Yale University Press, 2007)

Ian F.W. Beckett, Ypres the First Battle 1914 (Harlow: Pearson, 2004)

Ian Beckett, Home Front 1914-18: How Britain Survived the Great War (London: The National Archives, 2006)

Ilana R. Bet-El, Conscripts: Forgotten Men of the Great War (Stroud: The History Press, 2009)

David Bilton, The Home Front in the Great War (London: Leo Cooper, 2003)

J.M. Bourne, Britain and the Great War 1914 – 1918 (Edward Arnold, 1989)

Malcolm Brown, Tommy Goes to War (London: Dent, 1978)

Malcolm Brown, The Imperial War Museum Book of the First World War (London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1991)

Malcolm Brown, The imperial War Museum Book of the Somme (London: Sidgwick and Jackson, 1997)

G.J. Bryant, “Bolton and the Outbreak of the First World War” Transactions of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire, Volume 138 (1988), pp 181-190

Hugh Cecil and Peter H. Liddle (eds.), Facing Armageddon: The First World War Experienced (Barnsley: Pen and Sword, 1996)

Hugh Cecil and Peter H Liddle (eds.), At the Eleventh Hour: Reflections, Hopes and Anxieties at the Closing of the Great War, 1918 (London: Leo Cooper, 1998)

Ann Clayton, Chavasse Double VC (London: Leo Cooper, 1992)

F. Coetzee and M. Shevin-Coetzee (eds.), Authority, Identity and the Social History of the Great War (Oxford: Bergahn Books, 1995)

Rose E.B. Coombes, Before Endeavours Fade: A Guide to the Battlefields of the First World War (After the Battle, 2010)

Gordon Corrigan, Mud, Blood and Poppycock (London: Cassell, 2003)

David Crane, Empires of the Dead: How One Man’s Vision Led to the Creation of WWI’s War Graves (London: William Collins, 2013)

Wade Davis, Into The Silence: The Great War, Mallory and the Conquest of Everest (London: Bodley Head, 2011)

Gerard J. De Groot, Blighty: British Society in the Era of the Great War (London: Pearson, 1996)

Sir B De Lisle, Reminiscences of Sport and War (London: Eyre and Spottiswoode,1939)

Captain J.C. Dun, The War the Infantry Knew (London: Abacus, 2003)

Geoff Dyer, The Missing of the Somme (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1995)

Peter Doyle, First World War Britain (Botley: Shire Publications, 2012)

J.E. Edmonds, The Official History of the Great War 1914-1918: Military Operations in France and Belgium (Originally published in 15 volumes between 1922 and 1948; now available as a CD Rom from the Naval and Military Press)

David Englander and James Osborne, ‘Jack, Tommy and Henry Dubb: The Armed Forces and the Working Class’ The Historical Journal, Vol. 21, No. 3 (Sep., 1978), pp. 593-621

David French, Military Identities: The Regimental System, the British Army and the British People (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005)

J.G. Fuller, Popular Culture and Troop Morale in the British and Dominion Forces 1914 – 1918 (Oxford: Clarendon, 1990)

Paul Fussell, The Great War and Modern Memory (Oxford, 2000)

Martin Gilbert, First World War (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1994)

Gerald Gliddon, (ed.), Norfolk and Suffolk in the Great War (Gliddon Books, 1988)

S.R. Grayzel, Women’s Identities at War: Gender, Motherhood and Politics in Britain and France During the First World War, (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1999)

Adrian Gregory, The Last Great War: British Society and the First World War (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008)

Paddy Griffith, Battle Tactics of the Western Front: the British Army’s Art of
Attack 1916-18 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994)

Paddy Griffith, (ed.), British Fighting Methods in the Great War (London: Frank Cass, 1996)

C. Haste, Keep the Home Fires Burning: Propaganda in the First World War (London: Allen Lane, 1977)

Max Hastings, Catastrophe: Europe Goes to war in 1914 (London: William collins, 2014)

Adam Hochschild, To End All Wars (London: Macmillan, 2011)

A.H. Farrar-Hockley, The Somme (Severn House ?)

Richard Holmes, Tommy: The British Soldier on the Western Front 1914-1918 (London: Harper Collins, 2004)

Tonie and Valmai Holt, Battlefields of the First World War (London: Pavilion, 1995)

Tonie and Valmai Holt, Major and Mrs Holt’s Battlefield Guide: Somme (London: Leo Cooper, 1996).

Tonie and Valmai Holt, Major and Mrs Holt’s Battlefield Guide: Ypres Salient (London: Leo Cooper, 1997)

P. Horn, Rural Life in England in the First World War (Dublin, 1984)

Jack Horsfall and Nigel Cave, Battleground Europe: Serre Somme (London: Leo Cooper, 1996) and all the other books in this series, covering the various battlefields of the Western Front.

A.Hurd, A Merchant Fleet at War (Cassell and Co. 1920)

Andrew Jackson, Accrington pals The Full Story (Barnsley: pen and Sword, 2013)

Alex King, Memorials of the Great War in Britain: The Symbolism and Politics of Remembrance (Legacy of the Great War) (Oxford: Berg, 1998)

Susan Kingsley-Kent, Aftershocks: Politics and Trauma in Britain 1918-1931 (Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan, 2008)

Joshua Levine, Forgotten Voices of the Somme (London: Ebury Press, 2004)

John Lewis-Stempel, Six Weeks: the Short and Gallant Life of the British Officer in the First World War (London: Orion, 2011)

P.H. Liddle, The Worst Ordeal: Britons at Home and Abroad 1914 – 1918 (London: Leo Cooper, 1994)

Lyn MacDonald, They Called in Passchendaele (London: Michael Joseph, 1978)

Lyn MacDonald, Somme (London: Michael Joseph, 1983)

Lyn MacDonald, 1914 (London: Book Club Associates 1987)

Lyn MacDonald, 1915: Death of Innocence (London: Hodder Headline, 1993)

Lyn MacDonald, 1914-1918: Voices and Images of the Great War (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1998)

Margaret MacMillan, The War that Ended Peace: How Europe Abandoned Peace for the First World War (London: Profile, 2014)

Martin Mace and John Grehan (eds.), Slaughter on the Somme: The Complete War Diaries of the British Army’s Worst Day (Barnsley: Pen and Sword, 2013)

Allan Mallinson, 1914: Fight the Good Fight: Britain, the Army and the Coming of the First World War (Bantam Press, 2013)

Nick Mansfield, English Farm Workers and Local Patriotism 1900-1930 (Farnham: Ashgate, 2001)

Arthur Marwick, The Deluge: British Society and the First World War (Macmillan 1965, 1986)

Arthur Marwick (ed.), The Great War and Social Change (Macmillan: 1988)

Martin Middlebrook, The First Day of the Somme (London: Allen Lane, 1971)

Geoffrey Moorhouse, Hell’s Foundations: A Town It’s Myths and Gallipoli (London: Sceptre, 1992)

Juliet Nicolson, The Perfect Summer: Dancing into Shadow 1911 (London: John Murray, 2006)

Juliet Nicolson, The Great Silence 1918-1920: Living in the Shadow of the Great War (London: John Murray 2009)

John Oakes, Kitchener’s Lost Boys: From the Playing Fields to the Killing Fields: The Lost Children of the Great War (Stroud: The History Press, 2009)

J.M. Osborne, “The Voluntary Recruiting Movement in Britain 1914 – 16” Modern British History Vol.5 1982

P. Panayi, The Enemy in Our midst: Germans in Britain During the First World War (Oxford: Berg, 1991)

Catriona Pennel, A Kingdom United: Popular Responses to the Outbreak of the First World War in Britain and Ireland (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012)

Doreen Priddey (ed.), A Tommy at Ypres: The diary and Letters of Walter Williamson (Stroud: Amberley, 2011)

Robin Prior and Trevor Wilson, Passchendaele: The Untold Story (London: Yale University Press, 2002)

George Robb, British Culture and the First World War (Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan, 2002)

Michael Roper, “Re-remembering the Soldier Hero: the Psychic and Social Construction of Memory in Personal Narratives of the Great War” History Workshop Journal (Autumn) 2000(50), pp. 181-204

Michael Roper, The Secret Battle: Emotional Survival in the Great War (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2009)

Gary Sheffield, Leadership in the Trenches: Officer Man Relationships, Morale and Discipline in the British Army in the First World War (Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan, 2000)

Gary Sheffield, Forgotten Victory: The Great War: Myths and Realities (London: Headline Review, 2002)

Gary Sheffield, The Chief: Douglas Haig and the British Army (London: 2011, Aurum)

Gary Sheffield and John Bourne (eds.) Douglas Haig: War Diaries and Letters (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 2005)

Peter Simkins, Kitchener’s Army: The Raising of the New Armies 1914-16 (Barnsley: Pen and Sword 2007)

Alan G.V. Simmonds, Britain and World War One (London: Routledge, 2011).

Hew Strachan, The First World War, Volume 1: To Arms (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001)

F.A.J. Taylor, The Bottom of the Barrel (London: Regency Press, 1978)

John Terraine, Douglas Haig The Educated Soldier (London: Leo Cooper, 1990)

Tim Travers, The Killing Ground: The British Army, The Western Front and The Emergence of Modern Warfare 1900-1918 (London: Allen and Unwin, 1987)

Richard Van Emden, The last Fighting Tommy: The ife of Harry Patch, the Only Surviving Veteran of the Trenches (London: Bloomsbury, 2007)

Richard Van Emden, The Quick and the Dead: Fallen Soldiers and their Families in the Great War (London: Bloomsbury Paperbacks, 2012)

Bernard Waites, A Class Society at War (Oxford: Berg Publishers, 1992)

Alexander Watson, Enduring the Great War: Combat, Morale and Collapse in the German and British Armies 1914 – 1918 (Cambridge University Press, 2009)

Trevor Wilson, The Myriad Faces of War: Britain and the Great War 1914-1918 (Faber and Faber, 2010)

Denis Winter, Death’s Men: Soldiers of the Great War (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1979)

J. M. Winter, Socialism and the Challenge of War: Ideas and Politics in Britain
1912 – 1918 (London: Routledge, 1974)

Jay Winter, Sites of Memory, Sites of Mourning (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998)

Jay Winter, The Great War and the British People (Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan, 2003)

Jay Winter, The Great War in History: Debates and Controversies from 1914 to the Present (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005)

Jay Winter, Remembering War: The Great War and Historical Memory in the 20th Century (Yale: Yale University Press, 2006)

A.Woollacott, “Khaki Fever” and its Control: Gender, Class, Age and Sexual Morality on the British Home Front in the First World War” Journal of Contemporary History Vol. 29 1994

A.Woollacott, On Her Their Lives Depend: Munitions Workers in the Great War (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1994)

G.C.Wynne, “The Legacy” Army Quarterly Vol.XXXVII No.2 October 1939

Secondary Sources about Merseyside in the period c1910 – 1930, including works about Liverpool as well as Wirral.

It will be noted that there are far more books about politics and society in Liverpool in this period than about Wirral. These works are useful firstly because they often mention developments in Birkenhead, but more importantly because they offer a story which can be used as starting point for understanding Wirral: we are able to explore the ways in which Wirral was similar or different to Liverpool and to investigate whether Liverpool’s experiences affected Wirral. The list includes local military histories. There are numerous small, privately printed booklets containing reminiscences about local life in the early 20thC. More of these will be uncovered as the work progresses.

Anon., The Birkenhead News Victory Souvenir of the Great War 1914-1919 (Birkenhead: Willmer Bros., 1919)

R. Bean, “Police Unrest, Unionisation and the 1919 Strike in Liverpool” Journal of Contemporary History Vol.15 1980

John Belchem, (ed.) Popular Politics, Riot and Labour: Essays in Liverpool History 1790-1940 (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1992)

John Belchem, Liverpool 800: Culture, Character and History (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2008)

John Belchem, Liverpool City of Radicals (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 2011)

Paul Booth (ed.) Burton in Wirral A History (Burton: Burton and South Wirral Local History Society, 1984) Contains oral history of the Great War period and comments upon the decline of paternalism after 1918.

Ian and Marilyn Boumphrey, Yesterday’s Wirral Pictorial History 1890-1953 (Prenton: Ian and Marilyn Boumphrey, date unknown) Good chronology of main events in the history of Wirral with references.

Fred Bower, A Rolling Stonemason: An Autobiography (London: Jonathan Cape, 1936) – Experiences of a Liverpool stonemason, who went to live in Wirral, and his reflections on war and socialism.

John Brownbill, West Kirby and Hilbre a Parochial History (Liverpool: Henry Young and Sons, 1928) This work is mainly about earlier local history, but it contains transcriptions of all the names on the Grange Hill War Memorial and of the list found in the Deeside Advertiser of 22/12/1922

Charles William Budden, The Beauty and Interest of Wirral (Liverpool: Philip Son and Nephew, 1921)

Rev.J.O. Coop, The Story of the 55th (West Lancashire) Division 1916-1919 (Liverpool: Liverpool Daily Post, 1919)

Col. Arthur Crookenden, The History of the Cheshire Regiment in the Great War (Reprint – Uckfield: The Naval and Military Press, of unknown dates)

Norman Ellison, The Wirral Peninsula (London: Robert Hale, 1955)

Mike Finn, “The Realities of War”, History Today, Volume 52(8) (August 2002) pp. 26-31

H. Giblin, Bravest of Hearts: The Biography of a Battalion – the Liverpool Scottish in the Great War Win or Die (Liverpool, Winordie Publications, 2000)

Thomas Hadwin, “From the Lower Deck”, History Workshop Journal, Volume 4(1) (1977), pp.247-249 – An account by the author’s great uncle of his First World War service in the Royal Navy and of how he became a Socialist.

David Horne, Higher Bebington’s Heroes 1914 – 1919 (Birkenhead: Countyvise, 2012)

David Lewis (ed.), Remembrances of Hell: The Diary of Norman Ellison (Shrewsbury: Airlife, 1998) Norman Ellison was a naturalist and author. He lived in West Kirby, Wirral.

Helen B. McCartney, Citizen Soldiers: The Liverpool Territorials in the First World War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005)

A.M. McGilchrist, The Liverpool Scottish (Liverpool: Henry Young, 1930)

Stephen McGreal, Moreton and District Patriots 1914-1919 (Birkenhead: Countyvise, 1999)

Stephen McGreal, The Cheshire Bantams: 15th, 16th and 17th Battalions of the Cheshire Regiment (Barnsley: Pen and Sword, 2006)

Graham Maddocks, The Liverpool Pals: 17th, 18th, 19th & 20th Battalions The King’s (Liverpool Regiment) (London: Leo Cooper, 1991)

Lt. Col. A.J. Moore, “The Territorial Battalions of the King’s” Stand To!: The Journal  of the Western Front Association No.49 April 1997

F. Neal, Sectarian Violence: The Liverpool Experience 1819 – 1914. An
Aspect of Anglo-Irish History (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1988)

H.B. Nielson, Auld Lang Syne: Recollections and Rural Records of Old Claughton, Birkenhead and Bidston with other Reminiscences. (Department of Leisure Services & Tourism, Metropolitan Borough of Wirral, Reprint, 1996)

Geoffrey Place, (ed.), Neston 1840-1940 (Burton and South Wirral Local History Society, 1996) Contains brief reminiscences about the Great War’

David and Heather Price, An Edwardian Family Album: A Photographic Portrayal of a Wirral Family in the Early 20thC (Alyn Books, 2009)

D. Ben Rees, The Welsh of Merseyside Volume 1 (Liverpool: Cyhoeddiadau Modern Cymreig Cyf, 1997)

D. Ben Rees, The Welsh of Merseyside Volume 2 (Liverpool: Cyhoeddiadau Modern Cymreig Cyf, 2001)

D. Ben Rees, Cysegr Sancteiddiolaf Capel Westminster Road Ellesmere Port 1907-2007: The Welsh Missionary Witness in Ellesmere Port 1907-2007 (Liverpool: Cyhoeddiadau Modern Cymreig Cyf, 2012)

E.H. Rideout, The Growth of Wirral (Liverpool: E.A. Bryant, 1927)

Enos H.G. Roberts, The 9th The King’s (Liverpool Regiment) in the Great War 1914-1918 (Leonaur, 2007)

T.W. Roberts, Ellesmere Port 1795-1960 (Birkenhead: Countyvise, 1996)

C. Simpson, Lusitania (Wirral: Avid Publications, 1996)

Edna Stanley, Memories of Old Eastham (Privately Published, Undated)

Brig.-Gen. F.C. Stanley, History of the 89th Brigade 1914-18 (Liverpool: Liverpool Daily Post, 1919)

Eric Taplin, Near to Revolution: The Liverpool General Transport Strike of 1911 (Liverpool: Bluecoat Press 1994)

P.J. Waller, Democracy and Sectarianism:a Political and Social History of
Liverpool 1868 – 1939 (Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, 1981)

E. Cuthbert Woods and P. Culverwell Brown, The Rise and Progress of Wallasey (Wallasey: Wallasey Corporation, 1960)

Harold Edgar Young, A Perambulation of the Hundred of Wirral (Liverpool: Henry Young, 1909)



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